ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES OF CORTICOTROPIC ADENOCYTES OF HYPOPHYSIS AT LONG-TERM EXPOSURE OF RED SLUDGE
1Department of Biological Fundamentals of Physical Culture and Sports, Nikolaev National University named after VA Sukhomlinsky, Nikolaev, Ukraine
Objective: The study of the features of ultrastructural changes and the character of the reparative processes in corticotropic cells (CC) of adenohypophysis exposure of red sludge.
Methods: A study of the ultrastructural organization of the CC of hypophyses of the laboratory rats was carried out on an electron microscope GEM-100CX (Japan). To determine ultrastructural regularities of CC, the morphometric processing of the electron diffraction patterns was carried out on the computer image analyzer IBAS-2000 of OPTON Company (Germany). The concentration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) was determined by a «two-step» enzyme immunoassay method for measuring the biologically active molecule of ACTH using the Biometrica test kit (USA).
Results: Compared with control animals, in the conditions of exposure of red sludge in 14-day-old rats in the CC of the adenohypophysis, the nuclei indicate an increase in chromatin area, and in the cytoplasm - the amounts of the mitochondrion, secretory granules and its activity. However, in individual CCs, hyperchromium, corrugation and oedema of the nuclei are observed, in the cytoplasm - the vacuolization of the endoplasmic reticulum with partial destruction of its membranes and the formation of cavities, as well as compaction of the mitochondrial matrix. In 45-day-old animals, a reduction amount of chromatin is observed in the nuclei, and mitochondrion and secretory granules in the cytoplasm. In the ultrastructural organization of the majority of CC, the expressed dystrophic and destructive changes are revealed. On the 180th day of the action of red sludge with the simultaneous decrease in the morphometric indices of the CC and increasing in cells the evidence of dystrophic changes, the signs of regeneration have emerged (scale up the size and amount of the elements of the Golgi complex, the granular endoplasmic reticulum, young forms of mitochondrion, free ribosomes and polyribosomes).
Conclusions: Reliably in the experiment the influence of red sludge on the ultrastructural organization of CC in the entryway part of hypophysis the temporal dependence effectiveness of adaptive reactions are placed. Maximum tension of mechanisms of adaptation was mentioned in the early period of exposure of red sludge. The inconsistency of adapt-accommodative mechanisms on the 45th day of the experiment was probably connected with the depletion of compensatory mechanisms. The regenerative-compensatory changes in CC in distant deadlines of the experiment proposes the possibility of adaptive regeneration in the time span.
Keywords: Adenohypophysis, corticotropic cells, ultrastructure, red sludge.
- Yusfin YuS. Obshchaya metalurgiya [General metallurgy]. Moscow, RF: Metallurgiya; 2007. 650 p.
- Winship KA. Toxicity of lead: A review. Adverse Drug React and Acute Poison. Rev. 2009;8(3):117-53.
- Kartashyov АG. Vliyanie khronicheskikh faktorov v postnatal’nom ontogeneze zhivotnykh [Influence of chronic factors in postnatal ontogenesis of animals]. Тоmsk, RF: V-Spektr; 2010. 122 p.
- Pikalyuk VS, Shkurenko VP, Kutya SA. Organy vnutrenney sekretsii [Organs of internal secretion]. Simferopol, Ukraina: Nauka; 2007. 96 p.
- Kuznetsov SL. Stress i neyroendokrinnaya sistema: sovremennye morfofunktsional’nye aspekty [Stress and neuroendocrine system: modern morphology and functional aspects]. Vestnik VGU. 2014;2(26):10-5.
- Sudakov KV. Evolutsiya kontseptsii stressa [Evolution of conception of stress]. Vestnik RAMN. 2008;11:59-66.
- Papadimitriou A. Regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2009;16(5):265-71.
- Bobrisheva ОV. Ul’trastructurna kharakteristika adenogipofiza bilikh shchuriv na riznikh etapakh postnatal’nogo ontogenezu [Ultrastructural characteristics of adenohypophysis of white rats on different stages of postnatal ontogenesis]. Morfologiya. 2013;7(3):27-32.
- Bolshakova OV. Ul’trastruktura kortikotropotsitov adenogipofiza pri intoksikatsii svintsom [Ultrastructure of adenohypophysial corticotropic hormone cells on lead intoxication]. Tavricheskiy mediko-biologicheskiy vestnik. 2013;16(1):37-9.
- Bolshakova OV. Ul’trastruktura somatotropotsitov adenogipofiza pri intoksikatsii svintsom [Ultrastructure of adenohypophysial somatotropic cells on lead intoxication]. Actual’ni pitannya medichnoy nauki ta praktiki. 2015;82(2):249-52.
- Pikalyuk VS. Morfologia adenogipofiza belykh krys v norme [Normal morphology of adenohypophysis of white rats]. Svit meditsini ta biologii. 2013;2:69-71.
- Aguilera G. Negative regulation of corticotropin releasing factor expression and limitation of stress response. Stress. 2007;10(2):153-61.
- Armario A. Long-term neuroendocrine and behavioural effects of a single exposure to stress in adult animals. Neurosci Behav Rev. 2008;32:1121-35.
- Rogozina OV, Ozerova NYu, Kashirina NK. Morfologiya adenogipofiza i nadpochechnikov pod vozdeystviem svintsovoy intoksikatsii i eyo korrektsii [Morphology of adenohypophysis and adrenal glands under the influence of lead intoxication and its correction]. Svit meditsini ta biologii. 2009;3:136-40.
- Pikalyuk VS. Vozmozhnosti makro-mikro-anatomicheskikh metodov v issledovanii gipofizov belykh krys [Possibilities of macro-micro anatomic methods research of hypophysis of white rats]. Ukrainskiy medichniy al’manakh. 2011; 9(3):200-2.
- Lyakh YuE. Osnovy komp’yuternoy biostatistiki [Bases of computers biostatistics]. Donetsk, Ukraina: Nauka; 2010. 211 p.
Rozhkov Igor Nikolaevich,
Doctor of Biological Sciences, Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Higher School of Ukraine, Professor of the Department of Biological Fundamentals of Physical Culture and Sports of Nikolaev National University named after V.A. Sukhomlinsky
Boretsky Gennady Georgievich,
Post-graduate Student of the Department of Biological Fundamentals of Physical Culture and Sports of the Nikolaev National University named after V.A. Sukhomlinsky
Conflict of interest: No conflict
Address for correspondence:
Rozhkov Igor Nikolaevich
Doctor of Biological Sciences, Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Higher School of Ukraine, Professor of the Department of Biological Fundamentals of Physical Culture and Sports, Nikolaev National University named after V.A. Sukhomlinsky
54030, Ukraine, Nikolaev City, str. Nikolskaya # 24
Tel: (+30) 667 498257