Literature Reviews

doi: 10.25005/2074-0581-2017-19-3-413-421

Z.K. Mukhidinov1, S.R. Usmanova1, F.Yu. Nasyrova2

1Institute of Chemistry named by V.I. Nikitin, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, Dushanbe, Tajikistan
2Institute of Botany, Plant Physiology and Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, Dushanbe, Tajikistan

This review provides information on propolis – a product derived from resin, balsamic and rubberized, which are collected by bees from flowers, buds and exudates of plants. This is a popular medication of folk medicine, which has a wide range of biological activity. Its biological properties are related to its chemical composition and, more particularly, to phenolic compounds, which differ in their structure and concentration depending on the region of production, the availability of sources for the collection of plant resins, the genetic variability of the queen bee, the technology used for the production and season, in which propolis is produced. The discussed analytical methods used for the separation and identification of constituents of propolis, its pharmacological properties, as well as prospects for the study of propolis in Tajikistan.

Keywords: Bees, propolis, properties, phenolic compounds, pharmacological properties, application.

Download file:

  1. Bogdanov S. Propolis: Composition, health, medicine: A review. Bee Product Science. 2016;1:42. Available from:
  2. De Castro PA, Savoldi M, Bonatto D, Malavazi I, Goldman MH, Berretta AA, et al. Transcriptional profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to propolis. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012;12:194.
  3. Fearnley J. Bee propolis: natural healing from the hive. London, UK: Souvenir Press; 2001. 172 р.
  4. Sforcin JM, Bankova V. Propolis: is there a potential for the development of new drugs? Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2011;133(2):253-60.
  5. Popova MP, Bankova VS, Bogdanov S, Tsvetkova I, Naydenski C, Marcazzan GL, et al. Chemical characteristics of poplar type propolis of different geographic origin. Apidologie. 2007;38:306-11.
  6. Aliboni A. Propolis from Northern California and Oregon: chemical composition, botanical origin, and content of allergens. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C. 2014;69(1-2):10-20.
  7. Morsya A, Soltanb Y, Sallamb S, Kreuzerc. Comparison of the in vitro efficiency of supplementary bee propolis extracts of different origin in enhancing the ruminal degradability of organic matter and mitigating the formation of methane. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 2015;199:51-60.
  8. Wilson M, Brinkman D, Spivak M, Gardner G, Cohen J. Regional variation in composition and antimicrobial activity of US propolis against Paenibacillus larvae and Ascosphaera apis. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology.2015;124:44-50.
  9. Susana M, Cardoso A, Silva MS. Biology and Potential Applications of Honeybee Plant-Derived Products. Sharjah, UAE: Bentham Science Publishers; 2016. 495 р.
  10. Toreti VC, Sato HH, Pastore GM, Park YK. Recent progress of propolis for its biological and chemical composition and its botanical origin. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013:697390. Available from: 10.1155/2013/697390.
  11. Tosi EA, Re E, Ortega ME, Cazzoli AF. Food preservative based on propolis: Bacteriostatic activity of propolis polyphenols and flavonoids upon Escherichia coli. Food Chemistry. 2007;104(3):1025-9.
  12. Luis-Villaroya A, Espina L, García-Gonzalo D. Bioactive properties of a propolis-based dietary supplement and its use in combination with mild heat for apple juice preservation. Int J Food Microbiol. 2015;205:90-7.
  13. Erdemli H, Akyol S, Armutcu F, Akyol O. Antiviral properties of caffeic acid phenethyl ester and its potential application. J Intercult Ethnopharmaco. 2015;4(4):344-7.Available from: jice.20151012013034.
  14. Huang S, Zhang CP, Wang K. Review recent advance in the chemical composition of propolis. Molecules.2014;19:19610-32.
  15. Luo C, Zou X, Li Y, Sun C, Jiang Y, Wu Z. Determination of flavonoids in propolis – rich functional foods by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with diode arry detection. Food Chem. 2011;127:314-20.
  16. Alvarez-Suarez JM (ed). Bee Products – Chemical and Biological Properties. Springer. 2017. 306 p.
  17. Kaškonienė V, Kaškonas P, Maruška A., Kubilienė L. Chemometric analysis of volatiles of propolis from different regions using static headspace. Cent Eur J Chem. 2014;12:736. Available from: 0521-7.
  18. Mello BCBS, Petrus JCC, Hubinger MD. Concentration of flavonoids and phenolic compounds in aqueous and ethanolic propolis extracts through nanofiltration. J Food Process Eng. 2010;96:533-9.
  19. Zhang C, Huang S, Wei W, Ping S, Shen X, Li Y, Hu F. Development of highperformance liquid chromatographic for quality and authenticity control of Chinese propolis. J Food Sci. 2014;79:1315-22.
  20. Bueno-Silva B, Alencar SM, Koo H, Ikegaki M, Silva GV, Napimoga MH, Rosalen PL. Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial evaluation of neovestitol and vestitol isolated from Brazilian red propolis. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61: 4546-50.
  21. Popova M, Chinou I, Marekov I, Bankova V. Terpenes with antimicrobial activity from Cretan propolis. Phytochemistry. 2009;70:1262-71.
  22. Jonmurodov A, Bobokalonov J, Usmanova S, Muhidinov ZK. Value added products from plant processing. Agricultural Sciences. 2017;8:857-67. Available from:
  23. Cantarelli MA, Caminia JM, Pettenati EM, Marchevsky EJ, Pellerano RG. Trace mineral content of Argentinean raw propolis by neutron activation analysis (NAA): Assessment of geographical provenance by chemometrics. LWT Food Sci Technol. 2011;44:256-60.
  24. Sawaya ACHF, da Silva Cunha IB, Marcucci MC. Analytical methods applied to diverse types of Brazilian propolis. Chemistry Central Journal. 2011; 5:27.
  25. Ignat I, Volf I, Popa VI. A critical review of methods for characterization of polyphenolic compounds in fruits and vegetables. Food Chem. 2011;126:1821-35.
  26. Campo Fernandez M, Cuesta-Rubi O, Rosado Perez A. GC-MS determination of isoflavonoids in seven red Cuban propolis samples. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:9927-32.
  27. Zhao J, Hu D-J, Lao K, Yang Z-M, Li S-P. Advance of CE and CEC in phytochemical analysis. Electrophoresis. 2014;35:205-24
  28. Ballus CA, Meinhart AD, de Souza Campos FA, Bruns RE, Godoy HT. Doehlert design-desirability function multi-criteria optimal separation of 17 phenolic compounds from extra virgin olive oil by capillary zone electrophoresis. Food Chem. 2014;146:558-68.
  29. Lustosa SR, Galindo AB, Nunes LC, Randau KP, Neto PJR. Propolis: updates on chemistry and pharmacology. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia-Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy. 2008;18(3):447-54.
  30. Farooqui T, Farooqui A. Molecular mechanism underlying the therapeutic activities of propolis: A critical review. Curr Nutr Food Sci. 2010;6:188-99.
  31. Ramos AFN, Miranda JL. Propolis: A review of its anti-inflammatory and healing actions 203. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases. 2007;13(4):697-710.
  32. Bridi R, Montenegro G, Nunez-Quijada G, Giordano A, Moran-Romero M, Jarapezoa I, Speisky H, Atala E, Lopez-Alarcon C. International regulations of propolis quality: Required assays do not necessarily reflect their polyphenolicrelated in vitro activities. Journal of Food Science. 2015;80(6):1188-95. Available from:
  33. Sundeep HK, Bhat SS, Rao A, Sain S. Effect of propolis on Streptococcus mutants counts: an in vivo study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2013;6:22-5.
  34. Wassel MO, Khattab MA. Antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and inhibition of bacterial induced enamel demineralization of propolis, miswak, and chitosan nanoparticles based dental varnishes. Journal of Advanced Research. 2017;8:387-92.
  35. Falcao SI, Vale N, Cos P, Gomes P, Freire C, Maes L, Vilas-Boas M. In vitro evaluation of Portuguese propolis and floral sources for antiprotozoal, antibacterial and antifungal activity. Phytotherapy Research. 2014;28(3):437-43.
  36. Gressler LT, Da Silva AS, Machado G, Dalla Rosa L, Dorneles F, Gressler L T. Susceptibility of Trypanosoma evansi to propolis extract in vitro and in experimentally infected rats. Research in Veterinary Science. 2012;93(3):1314- 7. Available from:
  37. Paulino N, Abreu SRL, Uto Y, Koyama D, Nagasawa H, Hori H, et al. Antiinflammatory effects of a bioavailable compound, Artepillin C, in Brazilian propolis. European Journal of Pharmacology. 2008;587(1-3):296-301.
  38. Shi H, Yang H, Zhang X, Yu L. Identification and quantification of phytochemical composition and anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging properties of methanolic extracts of Chinese propolis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2012;60(50):12403-10.
  39. Wu Z, Zhu AQ, Takayama F, Okada R, Liu YC, Harada Y, et al. Brazilian green propolis suppresses the hypoxia-induced neuroinflammatory responses by inhibiting NF-kappa B activation in microglia. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2013;2013:906726. Available from: http://dx.doi. org/10.1155/2013/906726.
  40. Parolia A, Thomas M, Kundabala M, Mohan M. Propolis and its potential uses in oral health. Int J Med Med Sci. 2010;2:210-5.
  41. Pillai SI, Palsamy P, Subramanian S, Kandaswamy M. Wound healing properties of Indian propolis studied on excision wound-induced rats. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2010;48(11):1198-1206.
  42. Ismail ZB, Alshehabat MA, Hananeh W, Daradka M, Ali JH, Najjar EKEl, Recent advances in topical wound healing products with special reference to honey: A review. Research Opinion in Animals and Veterinary Sciences. 2015; 5:76-83.
  43. Orsolic N. A review of propolis antitumour action in vivo and in vitro. JAAS.2010;1:1-20.
  44. Ahn JC, Biswas R, Chung PS. Synergistic effect of radachlorin mediated photodynamic therapy on propolis induced apoptosis in AMC-HN-4 cell lines via caspase dependent pathway. Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy. 2013;10(3):236-43.
  45. Boisard S, Le Ray BS, Gatto AM. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antiAGEs activities of a French poplar type propolis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2014;62(6):1344-51.
  46. Vit P, Huq F, Barth O, Campos M, Pérez-Pérez E, Tomás-Barberán F, et al. Use of propolis in cancer research. British Journal of Medicine & Medical Research. 2015;8:88-109.
  47. Watanabe MAE, Amarante MK, Conti BJ, Sforcin JM. Cytotoxic constituents of propolis inducing anticancer effects: a review. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2011;63(11):1378-86.
  48. Ali FH, Kassem GM, Atta-Alla OA. Propolis as a natural decontaminant and antioxidant in fresh oriental sausage. Veterinaria Italiana. 2010;46(2):167-72.
  49. Iljazovic E, Ljuca D, Sahimpasic A, Avdiæ S. Efficacy in treatment of cervical HRHPV infection by combination of beta interferon, and herbal therapy in woman with different cervical lesions. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2006;6:79-84.
  50. Demestre M, Messerli S, Celli N, Shahhossini MKL, Mautner V, Maruta H. Cape (caffeic acid phenethyl ester)-based propolis extract (Bio 30) suppresses the growth of human neurofibromatosis (NF) tumor xenografts in mice. Phytotherapy Res. 2009;23:226-30.
  51. Aoi W, Hosogi S, Niisato N, Yokoyama N, Hayata H, Miyazaki H, et al. Improvement of insulin resistance, blood pressure and interstitial pH in early developmental stage of insulin resistance in OLETF rats by intake of propolis extracts. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2013;432:650-3.
  52. Franca JR, De Luca MP, Ribeiro TG, Castilho RO, Moreira AN, Santos VR, et al. Propolis-based chitosan varnish: drug delivery, controlled release and antimicrobial activity against oral pathogen bacteria. BMC Compl Altern Med. 2014;14:478-89.
  53. Balata G, El Nahas HM, Radwan S. Propolis organogel as a novel topical delivery system for treating wounds. Drug Delivery. 2014;21(1):55-61.
  54. Deltrene P. Studies on the epidemiology of hepatitis B and C virus infections are still needed. J Hepatol. 2015;62(6):1225-7. Available from: http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/j.jhep.2015.02.044.
  55. Mani F, Damasceno HCR, Novelli ELB, Sforcin JM. Biochemical determinations of propolis-treated rats: effects of different concentrations, extracts and intake period. Biosaude. 2008;10(1):3-16.
  56. Hellgren A, Cervin S, Nordling A, Bergman, Cardell LO. Allergic rhinitis and the common cold – high cost to society. Allergy. 2010; 65(6) :776-83.
  57. Jung WK, Lee D, Choi YH. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester attenuates allergic airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in murine model of ovalbumin-induced asthma. Life Sciences. 2008;82(13-14):797-805.
  58. Wagh VD. Propolis: A wonder bees product and its pharmacological potentials. Advances in Pharmacological Sciences. 2013;308249:1-11. Available from:
  59. Gavanji S, Larki B, Mortazaeinezhad F. Bioinformatic prediction of interaction between flavonoids of propolis of honey bee and envelope glycoprotein GP120. International Journal of Scientific Research in Environmental Sciences. 2014;2(3):85-93.
  60. . Isupov SJ, Dustov A, Azimova SM, Khajiakbar Aysa, Umarov S, Shomirzoeava O, i dr. Izuchenie phiziko-khimicheskikh svoystv propolisa iz regionov Tadzhikistana [Study of the physical and chemical properties of propolis from the regions of Tajikistan]. Vestnik Akademii meditsinskikh nauk Tadzhikistana. 2014;4:60-4.
  61. Safarov EKh, Abdullaev A, Dzhumaev BB, Johnmurodov AS, Usmanova SR, Muhidinov Z.K. Izuchenie soderzhaniya biochimicheskikh komponentov propolisa iz razlichnykh regionov Tadzhikistana [Study of the biochemical components of propolis from various regions of Tajikistan]. Materialy XIV Numanovskikh chteniy “Vklad molodykh uchyonykh v razvitie chimicheskoy nauki”; 2017 Noyabr’ 22; Dushanbe, RT. Dushanbe, RT: Institut khimii im. V.I. Nikitina AN RT; 2017. Pril. p. 162-3.
  62. Almeida ECD, Menezes H. Anti-inflammatory activity of propolis extracts: a review 2104. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases. 2002;8(2):191-212.
  63. Scheucher PS, Dos Santos GA, Teixeira HLG, Thome CH, Lucena-Araujo AR, Falcao RP, et al. Caffeic acid phenetyl ester, a Brazilian-green-propolis derivative, induces apoptosis in AML cells, promotes up-regulation of G-protein signaling and hyper secretion of IL-8. Blood. 2010;116(21):1342.
  64. Shvarzbeyn J, Huleihel, M. Effect of propolis and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on NF kappa B activation by HTLV-1 Tax. Antiviral Research 2011;90(3):108-15.

Authors' information:

Mukhidinov Zayniddin Kamarovich,
Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Full Professor, Director of Institute of Chemistry named after V.I. Nikitin, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan

Usmanova Surayo Rakhmatzhonovna,
Candidate of Chemical Sciences, Senior Researcher, Institute of Chemistry named after V.I. Nikitin, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan

Nasyrova Firuza Yusufovna,
Doctor of Biological Sciences, Full Professor, Head of the Laboratory of Plant Genetics of the Institute of Botany, Plant Physiology and Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan

Conflicts of interest: No conflict

Address for correspondence:

Mukhidinov Zayniddin Kamarovich

Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Full Professor, Director of Institute of Chemistry named after V.I. Nikitin, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan

734063, Republic of Tajikistan, Dushanbe, Ayni str., 299/2

Tel.: (+992) 372 258095