THE FREQUENCY OF DEVELOPMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS AMONG CITIZENS OF THE REPUBLIC OF TAJIKISTAN, LEAVING TO LABOR MIGRATION
Republican Center for Protection of Population from Tuberculosis, Dushanbe, Republic of Tajikistan
Objective: To study the incidence of tuberculosis among migrants using active mass screening methods.
Methods: The analysis of the statistical data conducted the incidence of tuberculosis in the general population and the citizens, who are leaving for labor migration. Methods of active phased screening, complaints survey and anamnesis, skin testing, fluorography and laboratory examination were used.
Results: Analysis of the WHO calculation parameters for morbidity and mortality from tuberculosis showed a persistent tendency to decrease of these indicators. The analysis of state statistics on both indicators has revealed a direct correlation orientation with the WHO calculation indicators. The analysis showed a persistent tendency to reduce the estimated incidence of tuberculosis, from 2000 to 2016, from 220 to 65 per 100 thousand of the population. Similar dynamics are noted in the analysis of the WHO calculated figure for tuberculosis mortality, which decreased from 20 per 100,000 in 2000 to 2.8 per 100,000 in 2016. Extrapolation of these data to indicators of the incidence of tuberculosis in migrants showed unstable dynamics, manifested in different years as a slump, and to grow.
Conclusions: The problems of tuberculosis and migration are a consequence of socio-economic instability in Tajikistan. Implementation of a complex of active screening measures, ensure the availability of migrants to diagnostic and treatment and preventive services have an effective result, reflected in the reduction in the number of new cases of tuberculosis among labour migrants.
Keywords: Tuberculosis, screening, migrants, accessibility, morbidity, mortality.
- World Health Organization/International Organization for Migration: Tuberculosis prevention and care for migrants. [http://www.who.int/tb/publications/WHO/IOM_TBmigration.pdf]. Accessed 13 June 2018.
- Kamper-Jorgensen Z, Andersen AB, Kok-Jensen A, Kamper-Jorgensen M, Bygbjierg IC, Andersen PH, et al. Migrant tuberculosis: the extent of transmission in a low burden country. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2012;12:60. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-12-60.
- Dara M, de Colombani P, Petrova-Benedict R, Centis R, Zellweger JP, Sandgren A, et al. The minimum package from cross-border control and care in the WHO European region: a Wolfheze consensus statement. Eur Respir J. 2012;40(5):1081-90.
- Li T, He XX, Chang ZR, Ren YH, Zhou JY, Ju LR, et al. Impact of new migrant populations on the spatial distribution of tuberculosis in Beijing. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2011;15:163-8.
- Mor Z, Pinsker G, Cedar N, Lidji M, Grotto I. Adult tuberculosis in Israel and migration: trends and challenges between 1999 and 2010. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2012;16:1613-8.
- Nesher L, Riesenberg K, Saidel-Odes L, Schlaeffer F, Smolyakov R. Tuberculosis in African refugees from the sub-Saharan region. IMAJ. 2012;14:111-4.
- Alonso Rodriguez N, Chaves F, Inigo J, Bouza E, Garcia de Viedma D, Andres S, et al. Transmission permeability of tuberculosis involving immigrants, revealed by a multicentre analysis of clusters. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15(5):435-42.
- Barniol J, Niemann S, Louis VR, Brodhun B, Dreweck C, Richter E, et al. Transmission dynamics of pulmonary tuberculosis between autoch-thonous and immigrant sub-populations. BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9:197.
- Denholm JT, McBryde ES, Brown GV. Ethical evaluation of immigration screening policy for latent tuberculosis infection. Aust NZJ Public Health. 2012;36:325-8.
- Denholm JT. Immigration screening for latent tuberculosis infection. Med J Aust. 2013;198(10):524.
- Campbell J, Marra F, Cook V, Johnston J. Screening immigrants for latent tuberculosis: do we have the resources. CMAJ .2014;186(4):246-7.
- Mor Z, Lerman Y, Leventhal A. Evaluating tuberculosis preimmigration process in Ethiopian immigrants to Israel. Eur Respir J.2008;32(2):413-8.
- Li X, Zhang H, Jiang S. Active pulmonary tuberculosis case detection and treatment among floating population in China: an effective pilot. J Immigr Minor Health.2010;12:811-5.
- Flynn M, Brown L, Tesfai A, Lauer T. Post-migration screening for active tuberculosis in Victoria, Australia. Inter J Tuberc Lung Dis.2012;16(1):50-4.
- Nkulu FK, Hurtig A-K, Ahlm C, Krantz I. Screening migrants for tuberculosis – a missed opportunity for improving knowledge and attitudes in high-risk groups: A cross-sectional study of Swedish-language students in Umea, Sweden. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:349. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-10-349.
- Mor Z, Leventhal A, Weiler-Ravell D. Chest radiography validity in screening pulmonary tuberculosis in immigrants from a high-burden country. Respir Care. 2012;57(7):1137-44.
- Mor Z, Weinstein O, Tischler-Aurkin D, Leventhal A, Alon Y. Yield of tuberculosis screening of undocumented migrants from the Horn of Africa based on chest radiography. IMAJ. 2015;17:11-3.
- Tafuri S, Martinelli D, Melpignano L. Tuberculosis screening in migrants reception centers: results of a 2009 Italian survey. Am J Infect Control. 2011;39:495-9.
- Kik SV, Franken WPJ, Mensen M, Cobelens FGJ, Arend SM. Predictive value for progression to tuberculosis by IGRA and TST in immi-grant contacts. Eur Respir J. 2010;35(6):1346-53.
- Calduch EN, Diaz A, Diez M. Ethical and legal issues related to health access for migrant populations in the Euro-Mediterranean area. Eurosurveillance. 2008;13:1-3.
- Zhou C, Chu J, Geng H, Wang X, Xu L. Pulmonary tuberculosis among migrants in Shandong, China: factors associated with treatment delay. BMJ Open. 2014;4:e005805. 6р. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005805.
- Zhou C, Tobe RG, Chu J. Detection delay of pulmonary tuberculosis patients among migrants in China: a cross-sectional study. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2012;16:1630-6.
- Xi HF, Li JJ. Analysis on patient delay among new pulmonary tuberculosis patients among urban migrants. Mod J Integr Tradit Сhin West Med. 2011;20:682-4.
- Tobe RG, Xu L, Zhou C. Factors affecting patient delay of diagnosis and completion of Direct Observation Therapy, hot-course (DOTS) among the migrant population in Shandong, China. Biosci Trends. 2013;7:122-8.
- Lin HP, Deng CY, Chou P. Diagnosis and treatment delay among pulmonary tuberculosis patients identified using the Taiwan reporting enquiry system, 2002-2006. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:55. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-9-55.
- Sagbakken M, Bjune GA, Frich JC. Experience of being diagnosed with tuberculosis among immigrants in Norway-Factors associated with diagnostic delay: A qualitative study. Scand J Public Health. 2010;38(3):283-90. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1403494809357101.
- Tang Y, Zhao M, Wang Y, Gong Y, Yin X, Zhao A, et al. Non-adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment among internal migrants with pulmonary tuberculosis in Shenzhen, China: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health.2015;15:474. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1789-z.
- Zhou C, Chu J, Liu J. Adherence to tuberculosis treatment among migrant pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Shandong, China:a quantitative survey study. PLoS One. 2012;7:e52334
- Truzyan N, Crape B, Grigoryan R, Martirosyan H, Petrosyan V. Increased risk for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in migratory workers, Armenia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):474-6.
- Minetti A, Camelique O, Hsa Thaw K, Thi S, Swaddiwudhipong W, Hewison C, et al. Tuberculosis treatment in a refugee and migrant population: 20 years of experience on the Thai-Burmese border. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2010;14:1589-95.
- Garfein RS, Burgos JL, Rodriquez-Lainz A, Brodine S, Pietrucha A, Rondinelli A, et al. Latent tuberculosis infection in a migrant agricultural community in Baja California, Mexico. J Immigrant Minority Health. 2011;13:940-7. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10903-010-9372-2.
- Shea KM, Kammerer JS, Winston CA, Navin TR, Horsburgh CR Jr. Estimated rate of reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection in the United States, overall and by population subgroup. Am J Epidemiol. 2014;179:216-25.
- Flynn MG, Brown LK. Treatment of latent tuberculosis in migrants to Victoria. CDI. 2015;39(4):578-83.
- Matteelli A, Casalini C, Raviglione MC, El-Hamad I, Scolari C, Bombana E, et al. Supervised preventive therapy for latent tuberculosis infection in illegal immigrants in Italy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;162(5):1653-5.
- Denholm JT, McBryde ES. Management of latent tuberculosis infections in Australia and New Zealand: A review of current practice. Tuberc Res Trea. 2010:284028. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/284028.
- Sirodjidinova UYu, Bobokhojaev OI, Mirzoeva FO, Djumaev RR, Rad-jabov DM. Problemy tuberkulyoza v Respublike Tadzhikistan [Problems of tuberculosis in the Republic of Tajikistan]. Tuberkulyoz i bolezni lyogkikh. 2015;2:39-44.
Radjabzoda Aslidin Saidburkhon, Director of the Republican Center for the Protection of the Population from Tuberculosis
Address for correspondence:
Radjabzoda Aslidin Saidburkhon
Director of the Republican Center for Protection of the Population from Tuberculosis
734025, Republic of Tajikistan, Dushanbe, Bukhoro str., 53
Tel.: (+992) 900 001444
Materials on the topic:
- STIGMA AND DISCRIMINATION ASSOCIATED WITH TUBERCULOSIS
- IMPROVEMENT RESULTS OF DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF ABDOMINAL TUBERCULOSIS
- ABDOMINAL TUBERCULOSIS: RETURN TO SURGERY
- DYNAMICS OF THE INDICATORS OF LUNG DESTRUCTION AND HORMONAL BACKGROUND AS A PREDICTIVE MARKER OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MULTIDRUG RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS TREATMENT
- ULTRASOUND DIAGNOSTICS OF ABDOMINAL TUBERCULOSIS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE OUTPATIENT-DIAGNOSTIC DEPARTMENT
- EFFICACY OF TUBERCULOSIS CASES DETECTION AMONG THE POPULATION OF DUSHANBE IN THE REPUBLIC OF TAJIKISTAN
- THE ROLE OF THE IMPLANTABLE PORT SYSTEM FOR THE CENTRAL VENOUS ACCESS IN TREATMENT OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS WITH MULTIPLE AND EXTENSIVELY DRUG RESISTANCE (PRELIMINARY RESULTS)
- SURGICAL TREATMENT OF PULMONARY AND EXTRAPULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS
- THE INFLUENCE OF BCG VACCINATION ON THE STRUCTURE OF CLINICAL FORMS OF TUBERCULOSIS IN CHILDREN FROM THE FOCI OF INFECTION AND FROM UNSPECIFIED CONTACT FOR TUBERCULOSIS
- TUBERCULOSIS OF WORKERS OF MEDICAL ORGANIZATIONS IN THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC, 2015-2017