doi: 10.25005/2074-0581-2023-25-4-509-519


1Almazov National Medical Research Centre, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation
2Polenov Russian Neurosurgical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation
3St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics named after B.P. Konstantinov, National Research Center «Kurchatov Institute», St. Petersburg, Russian Federation

Methods: Immunotherapy is a treatment option that is becoming more common for different types of cancer. The idea behind this therapy is to modify the patient's immune system. One type of this therapy involves blocking the binding between PD-1 and PD-L1. By doing so, it enables increased antitumor immune activity. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown significant efficacy with high response rates and long-term remission in various types of cancer. Glioblastoma (GBM) is a recurrent tumor characterized by immune evasion mechanisms that resist modern immunotherapy. The literature review analyzed the mechanism of tumor resistance to immune response, specifically PD-1 and PD-L1 expression in GBM. The review presented several clinical studies that showed the results of using immune checkpoint inhibitors in GBM patients. Additionally, the review described other mechanisms of tumor resistance to the activated immune system. All sources were selected using specialized scientific retrieval systems and full-text databases such as Google Scholar, eLIBRARY, PubMed, and Elsevier.

Keywords: Glioblastoma, immunotherapy, immune modulation, immune checkpoint inhibitors, PD-1, PD-L1.

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Authors' information:

Kushnirova Viktoria Sergeevna,
Resident, Almazov National Medical Research Centre
Researcher ID: IQU-6826-2023
ORCID ID: 0000-0003-0480-0884
SPIN: 9105-5852

Sklyar Sofia Sergeevna,
Candidate of Medical Sciences, Neurosurgeon, Neurosurgery Department № 4, Polenov Russian Neurosurgical Institute
Researcher ID: AIF-1772-2022
Scopus ID: 57203173677
ORCID ID: 0000-0002-3284-9688
SPIN: 4679-3548
Author ID: 1037224

Samochernykh Konstantin Aleksandrovich,
Doctor of Medical Sciences, Full Professor, Director of Polenov Russian Neurosurgical Institute
Researcher ID: AAS-7689-2020
Scopus ID: 24280115200
ORCID ID: 0000-0003-0350-0249
SPIN: 4188-8657
Author ID: 552872

Trashkov Aleksandr Petrovich,
Candidate of Medical Sciences, Head of the Center for Preclinical and Clinical Research, St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics named after B.P. Konstantinov, National Research Center «Kurchatov Institute»
Researcher ID: E-9576-2016
Scopus ID: 56146528000
ORCID ID: 0000-0002-3441-0388
SPIN: 4231-1258
Author ID: 546313

Safarov Bobir Ibragimovich,
Candidate of Medical Sciences, Head of the Neurosurgery Department № 4, Polenov Russian Neurosurgical Institute
Scopus ID: 16444663000
ORCID ID: 0000-0002-2369-7424
Author ID: 430361

Information about support in the form of grants, equipment, medications

The authors did not receive financial support from manufacturers of medicines and medical equipment

Conflicts of interest: No conflict

Address for correspondence:

Sklyar Sofia Sergeevna
Candidate of Medical Sciences, Neurosurgeon, Neurosurgery Department № 4, Polenov Russian Neurosurgical Institute

191014, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Mayakovskogo str., 12

Tel.: +7 (952) 2331862


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